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Although Jim literally carries a copy of this picture. His parents utterly fail to protect him. Although Spielberg is known for his sentimentality, the ending of Empire of the Sun is uncharacteristically dark.

Jim is reunited with his parents, but there is no joy in his eyes. Jim is clearly damaged goods, and I think Spielberg would have us lay that at the feet of those who ought to have done better by him.

It focuses on a poorly functioning though not broken family that takes up residence in a new house unfortunately built over a cemetery by an unscrupulous real estate developer.

Nelson is very much the Spielbergian delinquent dad: remote, impatient with the simplest of his parental duties, irresponsible, and prone to drink too much.

Dad initially does not fare well by comparison in the eyes of the audience, but, as might be expected, we start to care about him as he begins to accept his parental responsibilities, even as the depth of those responsibilities begins to dawn on him.

Much more complete discussions of the problem of special obligations can be found in the philosophical literature. Saving Private Ryan, for example, is sometimes used as a vehicle for teaching the basic principles of consequentialism to beginning philosophy students.

Is it reasonable for this whole platoon to entertain the risks it does in the course of the narrative in order to save one soldier?

A deductively valid argument is any argument such that the truth of the conclusion is guaranteed by the truth of the premises. In other words, if the premises of a deductively valid argument are true, the conclusion follows necessarily.

The utilitarian could respond this way, of course, but there are two reasons to think that this rejoinder does not work.

The appeal to special obligation is, after all, an appeal to our commonsense intuitions, and if we can always set aside our perceived special obligations in favor of some maximizing principle, then the utilitarian obviously wins.

But the dissonance between our perceived obligations and maximizing utility is precisely what is in dispute here, and no bald assertion from the consequentialist that our obligations are all agent-neutral will carry the day.

The second reason is that although it sometimes maximizes utility to protect the innocent, it does not necessarily do so.

I can imagine, in fact, some kinds of felt special obligations that usually do not produce the greatest good for the greatest number.

Our intuition that Anderton ought to protect Agatha remains, in other words, on whatever analysis of the utility of that course of action we end up with.

For discussion of Poltergeist, see note His subsequent movies, however, advance a more sustained, subtle meditation on the responsibilities of fatherhood and the recovery of childhood.

When Odysseus is reunited with his son, Telemachus, they both weep, partly for joy at being together it seems, but also arguably for the loss of their twenty years apart, and thus the absence of a father-son relationship.

At the end of the Republic, Socrates presents the Myth of Er, according to which souls in a world beyond this one can choose which kind of life they would like to live; this is like a case of reincarnation in which you get to choose what kind of birth and life you will have.

Many choose the life of a tyrant, but the one whom Socrates favors chooses the life of an ordinary person On the face of it, Jones is a straight swashbuckling hero.

And yet, despite the brown fedora, leather jacket, and whip, Indiana is not a typical hero. Abner Ravenwood, a leading archeologist and expert on the Ark of the Covenant who has gone missing.

Indiana defends Abner from the implied charge of being a traitor, but admits to a falling out between them some ten years earlier.

Indiana: I never meant to hurt you. Marion: I was a child. I was in love. It was wrong and you knew it.

Indiana: You knew what you were doing. Marion: Now I do. This is my place. Get out. Marion: The most gifted bum he ever trained.

You know, he loved you like a son. Took a hell of a lot for you to alienate him. Indiana: Not much, just you. This exchange makes it clear that Indiana betrayed the trust of his mentor and adoptive father through his relationship or tryst?

Fortunately for the audience, Spielberg casts this theme in a broader framework. Funny, but not classically heroic. Indiana Jones continues to hint at this throughout the movie.

He is constantly on the road, in search of something, away from home and hearth and the comforts of family life.

Come on. You know, a drink? The hero has not come to terms with the declared object of his search.

Instead, he has won the girl he once hurt and indirectly patched things up with his late mentor: a happy but unintended consequence of his prodigal behavior.

The problem with his own father, however, persists. In the course of his adventures with harebrained Willie Scott Kate Capshaw and child prodigy Short Round Jonathan Ke Quan , Indiana learns the perils and rewards of being a parent, albeit an adoptive and spiritual parent, to the thousands of children he frees; and, of course, to Short Round.

But Short Round is no helpless child. The eventual restoration of the relationship between Indy Harrison Ford, right and his father Sean Connery after decades of neglect and resentment speaks to a Socratic ideal of rebirth and wisdom.

It is only in the face of death that the father and son are reconciled and the missed ritual of the father-son relationship is let go.

First, Indiana is forced to retrieve the grail from a booby-trapped room in order to save his father, who has been shot by the Nazis.

When water from the grail is poured on the wound, Professor Jones is miraculously healed. An attempt by Dr. As the temple housing the grail begins to collapse, Indy slips and nearly falls into the abyss, but his father grabs his hand.

Professor Henry Jones: Junior, give me your other hand! Indiana Jones: [reaching for the grail] I can get it. I can almost reach it, Dad.

Professor Henry Jones: Indiana. The father and son have respectively saved each other. But more important, the father extends to the son the respect he deserves as a man.

That, for Spielberg, is perhaps the more important aspect of the relationship. The ending is romantic and playful, largely because their quest was not one of improper glory.

On this point, Socrates seems to side with one set of Homeric virtues rather than another. In the Iliad, glory dominates, but it seems to lead nowhere the death of friend and self except for memorial praise.

But at the end of the Odyssey, Odysseus is reunited with his wife Penelope. Odysseus has put aside the possibility of living forever in martial or erotic glory on an island with a beautiful goddess Calypso promises him everlasting eros but he turns this down to return to his wife.

When his true name and identity are revealed to his wife, he and Penelope do the three things any lovers would 44 Michel Le Gall and Charles Taliaferro want to do after a long time apart: they share their stories, make love, and then sleep together.

This embracing of domestic love in the marriage bed is the Socratic ideal bed, because it seeks restoration of persons through renewed enjoyment of beauty.

In the Symposium and the Republic, the ideals of beauty and goodness are seen as the true guiding principles in life; the goal of the most important adventure of the soul is to arrive at a life that participates in the good and the beautiful.

Beauty rather than glory is the key to fecundity. For subsequent followers of Plato such as Plotinus, this end point was thought of as the true home of the soul.

When Indiana lets go of this pursuit at the request of the restored father, he has arrived home.

Missing Fathers and Adult Children: E. Both Hook and E. To some degree, one might argue that E. Their father has deserted the family to go to Mexico with a certain Sally, and very quickly Spielberg establishes that the two boys, not the mother, are in charge.

When E. And put those knives back! In time, both E. In his role as father and protector of E. Spielberg works this theme in a playful manner when E.

As Elliott remarks to E. We could grow up together, E. Likewise, that is the dream of childhood friends: never to part, but always to be together, safe from the threats and harsh realities of the adult world.

He came to me, he came to me. Keys: Elliott, he came to me too. Conversely, E. The young boy has to watch his friend die at least it appears that way for a while , 46 Michel Le Gall and Charles Taliaferro learns to love for purely altruistic reasons, and ultimately must say goodbye.

Socrates similarly seemed to prize protective parent relations, even when the parent-child relationship is bad. In the Crito, Socrates claims that he should obey the laws of the state as a child obeys a parent, and in the Euthyphro he uses his dialectical power to try to prevent a son from rashly prosecuting his father.

Only when knives and threats are put away in xenia a guest is asked to put aside all weapons can there be fraternal exchange. And not just fraternal, for in the Symposium Socrates brings in Diotema, a philosopher-priestess who instructs the guests about the most important adventure of the soul: the love and pursuit of beauty.

On the way to London, they have the following brief exchange: Peter Banning: Jack, my word is my bond. Jack: Yeah, junk bond. When will you stop acting like a child?

Jack: I am a child. Peter Banning: Grow up! Some sort of Lord of the Flies preschool? Where are your parents?

Skunkhead with too much mousse, you are just a punk kid. I want to speak to a grown-up! We kill pirates. How long do you think that lasts?

Soon Jack might not even want you to come to his games. And you are not being careful. And you are missing it. This is more of a mark of youth than a conventional portrait of old age.

In a sense, Socrates may be read as warning us against the tired, settled habits that take hold with middle and old age.

From a Socratic point of view, why should one have reverence for those who are older? We suggest that one of the reasons lies behind the lesson Peter learns in Hook: Peter recovers his youth.

But we do suggest that all of these factors are in play as Spielberg wrestles with the problems of growing up with an absent father and points the way toward a resolution or restoration of father and son, parent and child.

For nearly three thousand years man has been searching for the lost Ark. No one knows its secrets. What are you trying to do, scare me?

You sound like my mother. The exchange goes: Sallah: Please, what does it always mean, this. Henry Jones. Sallah: The dog?

You are named after the dog? In the opening sequences of the movie, keys sound an ominous note in a series of shots that show them on the belt of a government agent who is pursuing E.

Film as an art form is particularly responsive to the philosophy of Levinas, for it not only presents images that 52 John W. Wright come face-to-face with alterity on the screen, but also presents these faces directly to the audiences that view them.

Yet, the nature of moving from long shot to medium, from medium to close-up, and back again in sequence also immediately connects the aesthetics of these choices to the ethical questions of otherness that Levinas is most concerned with.

There is no need to ask for ethical responsibility to this particular other, because its existence is merely as an agent of destruction.

In both The Thing and Jaws, the camera remains aloof and distant from the object of otherness, separating it from the possibility of empathy or connective responsibility.

Shots are rarely, if ever, closer than medium and are more often long shots. It is here that Spielberg adopts cinematically the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas.

The composition of these shots is predominantly open, representing the night sky as an endless vista. Long shots and extreme long shots are used, and the pace of editing is lyrical and slow.

All of these aesthetic choices continually reinforce the unknowable aspects of the alien other, refusing both Neary and the audience the Levinasian encounter with the face of the alien.

As the sequence proceeds, several alien craft appear. The human scientists begin communicating via pulses, tones, and music that are reciprocated by the aliens via the technology of their crafts.

The editing of the sequence quickly changes, increasing rapidly and employing Eisensteinian montage techniques. The alien, simply, smiles at Neary and Lacombe.

They respond with their own smiles, and their facial reactions demonstrate their wonder. Language is nonexistent; there is only the response of the humans who come before it.

Here, Spielberg does not destroy the moment with unnecessary dialogue or exposition; there are no trite or obvious translations of alien speech stating, 58 John W.

With this denouement, Spielberg reminds us that the alien other remains outside our full understanding. He uses extreme close-ups to show hands, feet, and oblique parts of the alien E.

The alien E. For only a few short scenes, E. From this point on, the face of E. When Elliott introduces E. Spielberg chooses extreme close-ups on the faces of each to reveal their encounter, Levinasian Ethics of Alterity 59 editing between increasingly close shots of E.

This, Levinas holds, is what is essential to the social domain. Spielberg reinvests language through speech, as E. The spaceship itself is imaged as almost mundane, far less mystical or technologically impressive than those in Close Encounters, because Spielberg wishes the audience to focus solely on the face of E.

Most 60 John W. Wright E. The ethical responsibilities incurred by embracing the other reach a symbolic crescendo in this tearful goodbye between Elliott Henry Thomas and E.

It was an engagement of history, after all, that Levinas wrote his philosophy for: an explanation of the events and actions of mankind during the mid-twentieth century.

But the annihilation of murder is not the same as possession. To attempt wisdom through knowledge inevitably leads to a demand for possession of the other, and, according to Levinas, only results in the violent negation of the other, as in the Holocaust.

The second is the image of a single red coat, worn by a small girl during the ghetto massacre, which Schindler later sees on her body as it is burned.

Finally, the coda shifts to color as the real Schindler Jews are introduced alongside the actors portraying them.

The smoke dissolves into the smoke of a train, arriving with Jews in Krakow. They are numerous, and we see them in close-up as they approach the Nazi list-takers.

Shots alternate between extreme close-ups on the typewriters recording names and the faces of the Jews.

The names are given quickly and are seemingly irrelevant at this point. Spielberg introduces the sequence with a series of shots edited in parallel between the Nazi commandant Amon Goeth Ralph Fiennes giving orders to his troops to carry out this brutality and images of the faces of the Jewish characters eating, praying, and simply living in their meager conditions.

The shots of the Jews are closed within their homes and in close-up, forcing the audience to engage them in the Levinasian face-to-face encounter that the Nazis refuse.

The trucks carrying the storm troopers arrive, and we again see list-takers setting up in the streets. Spielberg rapidly increases the pace of editing, crosscutting between wide and medium shots of the Nazi storm troopers spreading out and increasingly close views of the Jews trying to hide, concealing valuables, and showing fear at the impending event.

At this point, Schindler and his mistress, on a morning horse ride, approach the hill overlooking the ghetto. Their perspective of the event remains from a distance, and images showing their view of the ghetto events are always in extreme long-shot; this evokes the distance that Schindler begins with, but also a change in Schindler himself as he witnesses the brutal violence perpetrated on the Jewish others from this vantage point.

As the sequence progresses and the Nazis perform acts of random murder and horror, the camera closes in increasingly on Schindler, ending in extreme close-up on his face as he realizes he has given nothing of himself to alter these events, that he himself has not yet accepted a responsibility for the Jews he has employed to make money from the war.

By doing so, Spielberg aesthetically establishes the moment of individual responsibility for Schindler.

The Nazis strip the face from their victims, removing any and all sense of ethics from their actions. Yet critics miss one important point: Schindler himself is a Nazi.

Wright philosophical call for responsibility, for an ethical response to the horror of the Holocaust.

By taking an ethical stance, Schindler no longer resembles the archetypal evil of Nazism, yet he remains a Nazi until the end.

Here, Spielberg counterpoints the unethical response of the Nazis by cutting from close-ups of Schindler and Stern to extreme close-ups of the names being typed, sometimes so close we witness the ink dots and paper imperfections.

The denouement occurs in the present day, at the burial site of Schindler, and in color. Each actor walks with the living Jew to the grave, the camera revealing the face of both the actor and the person he or she played in medium and close-up.

The evolution of his choices also moves us as audience to a greater engagement; his early work selected the absolute other of the alien, and only in his later work does Spielberg turn the cinematic focus on the face onto our own historical human encounters.

Although Spielberg probably did not consciously choose Levinas as a philosophical basis for these choices, he nevertheless succeeds in promoting it.

Even Spielberg has fallen prey to this trend with his remake of War of the Worlds. Wright Notes 1. Levinasian Ethics of Alterity 67 Kolker, Film, Form, and Culture, Emmanuel Levinas, Existence and Existents, trans.

Bernasconi and A. Lingis Pittsburgh: Duquesne, , The working title for E. Sedgewick, Descartes to Derrida, Two people. Wright In a few cases the actors appear with widows of Stern, for example or children.

Kowalski A small troop of Boy Scouts frolic in the water just a few yards from shore. It is a bright, warm summer day; you hear the gulls in the distance.

Is it a shark? Is it bearing down on the boys? You are watching Jaws again. But they are not actually in danger. They are not even Boy Scouts, they are child actors.

And, on some level, you know all of this, but you feel alarmed nevertheless. Sometimes, as in documentary, our emotions are targeted via the intellect.

Kowalski ray Hamilton disregard for public safety in the face of the pending tourist season. None of these people are actually grief-stricken or in any danger, yet we feel their physical and mental pain.

This rather surprising feature of human nature is the focus of this essay. However, this would only partially explain our emotional reactions to it.

Yet we experience some of the same emotions we would if they were real people and events. The nature of this connection forms the core of an intense aesthetic debate.

Martin Brody is its new police chief. He, along with his wife and two young sons, has left the hustle and bustle of New York City behind.

Summer also signals beach parties. Nearing a buoy, she is jerked under water. We do not see her attacker, only her panicked face emerging from the black, still water.

From beneath, her body is swung in a circle; she disappears, and we never see her again. The coroner determines that Chrissie died from a shark attack.

Brody immediately sets to closing the beaches. The mayor and members of the business community complain that Brody has overreacted.

They inform him that the coroner has revised his report. It is now claimed that Chrissie died from a terrible boating accident; her body was ripped apart by an outboard motor, not a man-eating shark.

He paddles out on his air mattress, never to be seen again. Matt Hooper arrives from the oceanography institute. A shark expert, he helps Brody reassess the situation.

Hooper believes that the situation is dire, but the town board remains skeptical. The board authorizes additional police and coastguard support, but the beaches remain open for the July 4 rush.

Brody, however, eventually succeeds in destroying the shark. What role do our beliefs and judgments play in our emotional responses to the events of the movie?

In everyday circumstances, beliefs and judgments clearly play a crucial role in our emotional responses. If we feel sorrow at the loss of young Alex Kintner, do we believe that Alex and the attacking shark exist and that this event actually occurred?

Kowalski On the one hand, it seems that in many circumstances an emotional response is in one way or another dependent on belief in the existence of what we are responding to: you cannot feel sorry for Chris unless Chris and the reasons for feeling sorry for him exist.

Aestheticians philosophers who debate issues in the arts are divided in their approach to resolving this apparent dilemma. These philosophers argue that our emotional experiences are inconsistent and irrational since we know that these characters and events do not exist.

But it cannot be overlooked that some desires are desires to do things whether or not we believe it is good for us e.

You might even have the belief that something is good simply because you want to do it rather than the other way around.

In addition, it must be mentioned that some desires are completely irrational. How do we reconcile these two scenarios? Some philosophers argue that we simply cannot.

Kowalski being contrary to reason, perhaps they arise apart from rational processes. They are thus nonrational or arational in the way that moving your foot is when you drop something heavy.

After all, millions of dollars are spent to create a world that makes it easier for us to do this. There are directors, writers, cinematographers, and producers who dedicate their lives to enabling the suspension of disbelief.

Those of us who went to the theater to watch the events on Amity Island in the summer of would have been quite upset if there had been a baby crying in the seat behind us, or if the picture had been out of focus.

We consciously and voluntarily went in to be deceived, to enter into the minds and worlds of Spielberg and Benchley. Could it be that when we see Quint eaten by the shark infamous blood capsule and all and nevertheless feel pain and sorrow for him, we are actually experiencing the pain and sorrow we would feel for a real person in a similar situation?

Radford agrees that there is something to this explanation, but holds that it is not enough. Instead, he argues that we are emotionally invested in this character and this situation.

So, we are sad for Mrs. Kintner because of the situation she faces. But because Mrs. The problem, for Radford, would be that since Mrs.

Kintner does not actually exist, our emotional reaction is based on a false belief. Because our emotions in everyday situations are based on true beliefs 76 Christopher R.

Kintner is similar to fearing death in that, according to Radford, there is no true belief. Just as it is inconsistent and incoherent to base our emotional reaction to Mrs.

Perhaps the beliefs involved are of a more general sort than he lets on. Once Jones admitted that she was lying and that her son was safe at boarding school, we would no longer feel intense despair for her although we probably would be angry at her deception.

It is also the case that many unasserted thoughts pass through our heads. How could this be? In truth, the problem Radford poses is actually broader than even he acknowledges.

Feelings and moods are not generally held to have cognitive components in the form of beliefs or unasserted thoughts.

How does one explain such responses? Kendall Walton, for one, attempts an explanation by developing a systematic account of imagination.

Unlike children who are often though 78 Christopher R. Kowalski not always unable to detach themselves from make-believe, we can make this conceptual separation.

What makes these cheers and laughter inappropriate? Little work has been done explaining how to make any such assessments of our responses, but clearly these responses are of the greatest import.

Those events are created to move us to fright and sorrow. Is anything lost? Rather than settling the issue, however, this solution merely raises another question.

A very old idea is that the function of the arts is to delight and instruct. It would then appear that we should respond with emotions and feelings that provide the most delight or pleasure; this would remove the need for an exclusively objective standard for the responses i.

If so, the approach with the richest potential overall in the long run could provide a basis for judgment of the appropriateness of the responses.

Furthermore, delight might not be separate from instruction. Aristotle pointed out that learning can be pleasurable.

We can learn in a very straightforward way what it is like to be another sort of person, or to be in a situation other than our own.

We can certainly imagine how this would apply to empathizing with Mrs. What can Jaws do for us in this way? We suspect that multiple plausible answers exist.

He must act heroically, putting aside his fear of open water. When the Brodys take the ferry to the mainland, he does not even get out of his car.

He must cooperate with Quint, whom he knows but 80 Christopher R. Kowalski does not trust, and Hooper, whom he trusts but does not really know.

He is also caught between their two divergent worldviews. Quint is skeptical of anything except methodologies that have proved successful; he resists all technological or even social change.

Hooper relies heavily on technology and new research to better understand and control his environment. Brody is more of a pragmatist among other things.

Perhaps the moral of the story is that we, too, should be mindful of well-tested paths without disparaging new ideas. Respecting the old and embracing the new just might prove to be a most successful approach.

John Williams rediscovered my vision through his Jaws theme. Jerome A. However, this cinematic choice was forced on Spielberg because the mechanical shark often did not work properly.

Kendall L. Admittedly, the points raised in this paragraph may trade between ethical and pragmatic considerations, but not we would argue in objectionable ways.

A visual and emotional tour de force, A. Yet it remains a distinctly humanistic work, pessimistic perhaps, but not without empathy and hope.

My contention is that A. Is David a Person? Nevertheless, any interpretation of A. For my purposes, I assume that at least David, and probably Gigolo Joe as well, are persons in any sense that matters.

I make this assumption for two main reasons. His apparently jealous behavior toward Henry Sam Robards and Martin Jake Thomas , for example, seems behaviorally indistinguishable from real human jealousy.

Moreover, he is clearly so regarded, at least eventually, by both Monica and Professor Hobby. Second, the assumption that David is a person, or nearly a person, makes it easier to identify with him.

Otherwise, why all the fuss about their destruction? The obvious visual references to lynchings and concentration camps seem wildly misplaced unless we regard the mecha as, at the very least, something like persons.

It is certainly not an excuse for such cruel behavior, even if we also understand the legitimate though innocent threat that the mecha pose to human beings.

For these and similar reasons, I propose to regard David as a person. It is to this tragic sense of life that we now turn.

The Tragic Sense of Life Most of us would readily acknowledge that individual events or lives can be tragic. But then if tragedy is relative in this way, in what sense can human life in general be tragic?

If tragedies are relative to the norm, how can the norm itself be tragic? There are at least two ways in which we can regard human life in general, or the human condition, as tragic.

Either way, the claim that human life or the human condition is itself tragic is simply a modest departure from the ordinary sense.

As an essay on the tragedy of the human condition, A. Three kinds of desires, the frustration of which threatens to create tragedy, are singled out in A.

Our desire for love needs little explication or defense. Nearly all of us A. Once he is imprinted, he becomes obsessed with this desire.

Nearly all of us strongly desire to preserve our unique identity, to be one of a kind, to be irreplaceable. Or perhaps more accurately, we fear the loss of our identity, our uniqueness, or whatever makes us irreplaceable.

One illustration of this fear can be found in some common objections to human cloning, even if some of the metaphysical assumptions on which such objections are based are erroneous.

But whatever its cause, and whether or not such a fear is rational, it is certainly deeply rooted. This fear is also prominently on display in A.

As David arrives in Manhattan expecting to meet the Blue Fairy, he comes face to face with his double. Initially confused, David quickly becomes enraged and brutally destroys him, as if he himself were a Flesh Fair executioner.

At least for those of us who do not believe in an afterlife, death is viewed under normal circumstances as the greatest of evils: the complete and permanent cessation of all conscious experience.

In our more contemplative moments we despair not only at our own deaths and the deaths of our loved ones but also at the eventual and inevitable termination of humanity itself.

This feeling rightly belongs to the tragic sense of human life, for in the ordinary, comparative sense, there is nothing tragic about the mortality of human beings.

In sum, what makes the human condition tragic is that the things that we desire most, that give our lives meaning such as the desire for love , are bound ultimately to be destroyed; that what we value most will soon be lost; and that all our striving and progress will be wiped out forever.

Our mortality seems objectively inescapable, and with that realization often comes a sense of grief. I am not arguing that, because all things perish eventually, our lives now are somehow meaningless or lacking in value.

This view a non sequitur is opposed to the view I have in mind: our condition would not be tragic unless the things we value the most retain their full subjective value despite their impermanence.

If there is a recognizable and meaningful sense in which life itself is tragic, it is natural to look for some form of escaping this condition.

Although numerous potential forms of escape seem possible, including some questionable ones suicide comes to mind , A. And that is precisely what many of the characters in A.

Indeed, such transmissionist views have been shown to conflict with the learning of constructivist-based principles of teaching. It makes sense under the transmission model to depict a teacher speaking in the front of a classroom to a group of silent or invisible students.

It makes far less sense, however, to depict a teacher this way under a constructivist-inspired model of teaching.

From a constructivist perspective, the act of teaching cannot be depicted without including the students in the image, because the intellectual activity of the students is what is important.

Such beliefs often act as a barrier to accurately understanding constructivistinspired approaches to teaching, and will very likely also be a barrier to inferring the improvisational nature of teaching.

From the transmissionist perspective, there is little reason for improvisation in teaching. Rather, planning exactly what the teacher will say and do during a lesson, even down to 42 DeZutter the minute details, seems advisable to ensure that all the important ideas get said and in the right order.

If new teachers understand the value of improvisational teaching to student learning, they are more likely to plan for improvisation instead of planning a script.

If they learn to think critically about the role of improvisation in teaching and to reflect on their own successes and failures in improvisation, they will become better classroom improvisers, and therefore, better teachers.

In addition, such conversations may generate a demand for more scholarly work on teaching as improvisation, which can then be incorporated into teacher education, further advancing the cause of excellence in improvisational teaching.

I would like to see improvisation addressed directly and substantively in forthcoming teacher education textbooks, but in the absence of such discussions, teacher educators should fill in the gaps by exploring the topic with their students.

Bringing Improvisation into Conversations within Teacher Education For guidance on incorporating conversations about improvisation into teacher education, we can turn first to the already well-developed body of literature on addressing teaching beliefs in teacher education.

As suggested by the earlier discussion, the initial step in helping pre-service teachers understand the role of improvisation in teaching will be to address their assumptions about the teaching-learning process, some of which may conflict with the idea that effective teaching involves successful improvisation.

Asking students to articulate and examine their beliefs about teaching helps them be more deliberate learners as they encounter new, challenging ideas, and it sets the stage for the career-long reflective consideration of the teachinglearning process that many teacher education programs strive to foster.

The skillful teacher educator will listen carefully to the notions of teaching that her students express and then find ways to link those notions to the ideas she hopes they will come to understand.

Such activities can be used as opportunities to open conversations about the improvisational nature of teaching as well. Blumenfeld, Hicks, and Kracjik suggest that lesson-planning activities, which are a mainstay of methods courses, can be an important site for students to articulate and examine beliefs about the relationship between particular pedagogical choices and student learning.

Woolfolk Hoy and Murphy note that having students write philosophies of learning can be a valuable tool for unearthing assumptions.

Students can be asked to revise these at later points in their preparation, and can thereby track the evolution of their beliefs. Such themes can then be included in the discussions that arise around these activities, so that students not only begin to unearth their assumptions relating to teacher improvisation, but also begin to learn that improvisation is an important issue in teaching.

Programs that address beliefs only briefly or in a piecemeal fashion are unlikely to be effective in moving students toward robust, research-based understandings.

Thus, conversations about the improvisational nature of teaching should be integrated throughout a teacher education program as well, so that teacher education students have multiple, recurring opportunities to reflect on this aspect of their teaching beliefs.

In inviting pre-service teachers to think about teaching as improvisation, teacher educators can expect to encounter certain challenges.

I have mentioned that transmissionist beliefs held by many pre-service teachers are likely to create difficulties for thinking about teaching as improvisation, because teaching understood as transmission seems to require scripting more than improvising.

Lortie makes the point that upon entering a teacher education program, pre-service teachers have had twelve or more years of observing teaching from the vantage point of the student.

As apprentice observers, people gain many images of teachers that they carry into preparation programs, but these images only include the parts of teaching a student can see.

Teacher planning and on-the-fly decision making are mostly invisible to the student, and this masks the nature of teaching as skilled improvisation.

From the student perspective, routines and order are salient, but improvisation is not Labaree, The aim is not just that they understand that teaching is improvisational, but that they begin to think of themselves as professional improvisers who are deliberate about developing and employing improvisational skill.

Attaining this understanding is likely to be difficult, because teacher education students are not likely to have a well-developed sense of what might constitute improvisational excellence or what might be involved in achieving it.

Along with the other authors represented in this book, I argue that teacher educators can make an analogy to other professional improvisational communities, although this will require more than simply pointing out the commonalities between teaching and, for example, theatrical improvisation.

It is not obvious that professional improv performers engage in substantial training and preparation to become successful at their craft.

Therefore, teacher educators might ask students to consider such questions as what might be involved in learning to improvise at a professional level and what kinds of knowledge professional improvisers draw on.

It may even be useful to have students investigate some of the many books available on learning to improvise, and ask them to draw their own analogies between the skills explored in those texts and the skills involved in teaching.

In addition, narrative case studies are a common feature in methods texts. By discussing these examples of teaching with their peers and their professors, education students learn to think analytically about teaching, which is an important step toward becoming a professional educator.

As a part of these conversations, students should be invited to think about improvisation. When discussing their own teaching experiences, students can be asked about the role of improvisation in their teaching, and challenged to consider ways to make their teaching more successfully improvisational.

When discussing observations and case studies, the role of improvisation may be less apparent, and so it may be useful for teacher educators to pose questions that will make this more salient.

For example, a video case study can be paused to ask the viewers what the teacher is likely thinking about at a given moment and how she might respond to different contingencies, or to brainstorm about many possible directions in which the lesson may go depending on student responses.

Cases can also be evaluated in terms of what kinds of improvisational demands were placed on students What sort of knowledge construction opportunities were present?

In addition to including improvisation in discussions of examples of teaching, it should also be included in discussions of lesson planning.

Borko and Livingston established that experienced teachers teach more improvisationally than novices do because experienced teachers have more highly integrated knowledge structures relating to pedagogical strategies and content knowledge.

This finding cautions us that to some degree, improvisational skill may be a function of classroom experience. On the other hand, this work has implications for how we teach new teachers to plan their lessons.

Specifically, it might be valuable for teacher education students to consider what it means to plan to improvise. Professional Improvisation and Teacher Education 47 In addition, teachers may wish to attend more to the design of activities than to predetermining the flow of a lesson; this would help them attend to what kinds of explorations students will be supported to do.

As constructivist approaches to teaching emphasize, in order to build deep, conceptual understandings, students need opportunities for supported intellectual exploration.

Not only does teaching need to allow space for teachers to respond to evolving student thinking; it must be designed to allow teachers and students to improvise new understandings together.

Teachers need to be willing and effective improvisers, and this means that, as a profession, we must begin to explicitly examine the improvisation that we do.

The authors represented in this book are developing a body of knowledge for expert teaching improvisation that will parallel the kinds of knowledge found in other professional improvisation communities.

But at the same time as this work proceeds, we need to open the conversation about improvisational teaching to our next generation of teachers.

Future teachers will need to embrace improvisation as an important component in their professional work, and think deliberately and analytically about how to improvise better.

The idea that teaching is a form of professional improvisation may be a challenging one for many pre-service teachers, due to implicit transmissionist beliefs that make scripting a lesson seem more desirable than improvisation.

Therefore, it will be important for teacher educators to help future teachers unearth their assumptions about teaching, including those related to improvisation, and to create opportunities for them to develop more robust understandings of the teaching process and of why improvisation is central to it.

References Anderson, L. Sternberg Eds. Blumenfeld, P. Teaching educational psychology through instructional planning.

Bryan, L. Davis, B. Working through the regressive myths of constructivist pedagogy. Donmoyer, R. Pedagogical improvisation.

Fishman, B. Hargreaves, A. Holt-Reynolds, D. Personal history-based beliefs as relevant prior knowledge in course work.

What does the teacher do? Johnstone, K. Labaree, D. Life on the margins. Lobato, J. Initiating and eliciting in teaching: A reformulation of telling.

Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 36 2 , Lobman, C. Lortie, D. Folk psychology and folk pedagogy. Torrance Eds. Patrick, H.

Renninger, A. Learning as the focus of an educational psychology course. Richardson, V. The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach.

Sikula, T. Guyton Eds. Constructivist pedagogy. Firsthand learning through intent participation. Emergence in creativity and development.

Educating for innovation. Scardamalia, M. Siegler, R. Simon, M. Reconstructing mathematics pedagogy from a constructivist perspective.

Spolin, V. Improvisation for the theater. Strauss, S. Folk psychology, folk pedagogy, and their relations to subjectmatter knowledge. Torff, B.

Horvath, Eds. Tudge, J. Bruner, Eds. Wideen, M. Windschitl, M. Review of Educational Research, 72 2 , Woolfolk Hoy, A. Teaching educational psychology to the implicit mind.

Under the accountability agenda, teachers are required to measure and test students, to report using mandated standards and systems, and to teach in state sanctioned ways.

Under the creativity agenda, teachers are expected to act effortlessly, fluidly, to take risks, be adventurous, and to develop pedagogy and classroom creativity in order to develop their own knowledge and skills as creative professionals.

They are expected to develop creative learners who can succeed in a twenty-first-century economy that rewards creativity and innovation. The accountability agenda makes it difficult for teachers to work more creatively.

Teachers get overwhelmed by a constant barrage of accountability demands standards, tests, targets, and tables by government.

There is general agreement that governments are increasingly taking control of the teaching profession Alexander, Teachers are expected to perform in specific and regulated ways.

In contrast, the creativity agenda encourages teachers to take risks, be adventurous, and explore creativity themselves.

Yet, what constitutes creativity in education remains ambiguous. Whereas important research conducted a decade ago by Woods and Jeffrey identified how teachers cope with tensions surrounding In R.

The conflict between the creativity and accountability agendas in education causes tensions for teachers given the effect of all the tough talk of standards Ball, There is wide acceptance that teaching is a complex task involving a high degree of professional expertise see Sawyer, this volume.

In the United Kingdom, a government emphasis on creativity in learning has led to an expansion of artist-teacher partnerships.

In these partnerships, working professional artists visit the classroom for a limited time period and work side by side with the full-time teacher.

Partnerships have become a delivery model in education, which offers a forum for creative opportunities.

There is a long history of collaborations between teachers and professional artists in participatory arts activities, both in schools and communities.

Models of practice in partnerships between artists and teachers vary considerably. However, effective partnerships between artists and teachers in schools suggest it is in the act of creativity itself that empowerment lies.

Teaching is a subtle and complex art, and successful teachers, like artists, view their work as a continuing process of reflection and learning.

These partnerships directly benefit students, but they also have the potential to indirectly benefit students by increasing teacher expertise.

For a partnership to work well, either for students or for teacher professional development, Wenger , p.

Under these conditions, a collaborative partnership potentially can develop, where teachers and artists are engaged in a dialogue and are dialogic in their teaching.

For this to happen, they need to have time for thinking, to encourage and maintain ambiguity, and to share understanding concerning what they are doing and what this means within the community Galton, When teachers and artists collaborate, they often have different conceptions concerning the organization of space, material, and time in the classroom.

The visiting artist typically uses a more improvisational, openended approach, whereas the classroom teacher typically uses a more structured style.

Thus, these teacher-artist partnerships provide us with an opportunity to study the teaching paradox in action: How do these dyads resolve this paradox to balance the more unpredictable, improvisational approach of the visiting artist with the more predictable, normative, and accountable style of the teacher?

If this paradox can be resolved, the result would be improved teacher expertise; research tells us how important it is for teachers to alter traditional school boundaries of time and space to allow for unpredictable, rigorous, reflective, and improvisational teaching Jeffrey, This resonates with the notion of Nardone who considered the lived experience of improvisation to be a coherent synthesis of the body and mind engaged in both conscious and prereflective activity.

When teachers and artists work together, particularly over sustained periods, their tacit knowledge and practice can be examined, reflected on, shared, and new practices created.

From the outset of each performance, improvisers enter an artificial world of time in which reactions to the unfolding events of their tales must be immediate.

Furthermore, the consequences of their actions are irreversible. Few experiences are more deeply fulfilling. My goal is to understand how they resolve this tension to create a shared space for teaching that enables the emergence of improvisational forms of teaching.

What takes them from teaching together, independently and side by side, to coconstructing an emergent pedagogy?

I focus on two questions: When is it that artists enable teachers by working in classrooms? When teachers and artists collaborate, their different conceptions of teaching and different paradigms of expertise must be resolved before they can construct an effective learning environment.

This examination sheds light on the teaching paradox because the visiting artist represents a more creative, improvisational end of the paradox, whereas the classroom teacher represents the more constrained, scripted end.

Artists, in contrast, are stereotypically presented and seen as artists or arts practitioners, professionals involved in cultural production.

The artist in education is frequently an outsider who comes into an education space and acts as a catalyst or challenger of learning and who provides ways of exploring the world which involve more sensory, immersive, and improvisatory rooted ways of working than are customary in classroom settings.

I conclude by generalizing from these specific examples to propose a set of necessary conditions that must be met to resolve the teaching paradox.

Pedagogic Partnerships and Teaching for Creativity For many years, schools have employed visiting professional artists, in music, dance and theater, to work in educational partnerships with teachers in schools.

In the years after this influential document was published, many subsequent government policies and advisory documents have indirectly increased the interest in artist partnerships with artists in schools.

The vision and the hope are that the learning of pupils, pedagogic practices of teachers, and schools as organizations will be changed by educational partnerships and the significance they have in school improvement.

The vision and number of educational partnerships was increased dramatically in the United Kingdom as a result of the policy initiative, Creative Partnerships a, b.

With more than , young people and more than 4, teacher-artist collaborations, partnerships are acknowledged to have great potential to enhance arts education and creative education in schools.

One goal is to help pupils learn more creatively. A second goal is to help teachers teach more creatively; a third is to help schools become more innovative organizations.

A fourth is to forge strong and sustained partnerships between schools and artists. This chapter provides evidence of how the teaching paradox is resolved in these collaborative pedagogic practices between teachers and artists working in partnership in schools.

The vision and hope here, in the light of these educational policy initiatives as well as CCE, ; NCSL, ; QCA, and Schools of Creativity [Creative Partnerships Prospectus for Schools September, ] , are that teachers will better learn how to resolve the teaching paradox: They will be stimulated and supported by sharing the spontaneous and unpredictable nature of working in collaborative practice with artists, where the teacher makes unpremeditated, spur-of-the-moment decisions, where a considerable degree of residual decision making occurs, where the acquired skills that are normally executed as a professional repertoire of teaching strategies are linked up with those of the artists to develop a new way of resolving the teaching paradox between advance planning and the real-time practice of classroom teaching.

Professional Relationships and the Spaces That Enable Teaching for Creativity When artists and teachers collaborate, the full complexity of teaching is affected.

Teachers and artists enter the partnership with different theories, beliefs, practices, questions, visions, and hopes.

Thus the teaching paradox is played out visibly, in the social interaction between these two professionals.

There is strong evidence that artists use a more improvisational approach as they engage with students and teachers Loveless, ; Sefton-Green, Galton studied a group of artists with a successful track record of working in schools, not only including artists from traditional disciplines but also practitioners making regular use of various forms of information and communications technology ICT such as digital photographers and filmmakers.

There is no lack of evidence that artists motivate students, but there is little extant research that identifies what teachers learn about teaching while working with artists.

The metaphor of improvisation helps illuminate that creative learning is essentially polyphonic; it evolves not in a single line of action or thought, but in several strands and directions at once, not circumscribed by the tried and traditional, enabling risk to be borne or not, and in the face of this artists can adopt different stances and engage in different collaborative activities with teachers.

Improvisation is characterized by flexible, adaptive, responsive, and generative activity. Teaching, like improvisation, is framed conceptually and ethically, as well as temporally and spatially.

In the variability of preexisting pedagogic and artistic practices, teachers and artists engage in considerable risk taking when they work together.

Improvisational teaching is always negotiating the teaching paradox: It dances between planned, scripted, deliberate, conscious episodes, and opportunistic action that ensures spontaneity by yielding to the flow; its immediacy signifies improvisational characteristics in the synchronous moment-to-moment of creating a new pedagogic practice.

Research shows that visiting artists teach in a more improvisational manner. Can teachers learn from the emergence of these improvisational ways of teaching?

Teachers cultivate and draw on a repertoire of pedagogic strategies. Artists constantly try out new ideas or adapt old ones, often taking calculated risks in the act of teaching.

So, what happens when artists and teachers teach together? What happens in the fusion of their actions and thoughts, both of which are of equal interest to who they are and what they value?

How do these collaborations address the teaching paradox? Expert teachers use routines and activity structures in regulated i.

As the teacher unfolds this with his or her class, over time, perhaps within and beyond the lesson, the artist and teacher reveal a shared understanding of the sequence of improvised episodes.

Given any topic, it seems that individual teachers will choose different ways to introduce and different ways in which to sequence the episodes of teaching, even when they often make decisions about the order in which to cover sections of work, what to miss out, what to emphasize, and so on.

Teachers are often confronted with common misconceptions; their narratives, as interpreted by their students, are often responsible for introducing elements that run contrary to expectations.

For artists, the plot devised and the business of working differently is reflected by their different understandings of what has gone before.

This leads to the development of contextually situated problems and solutions that lead to new forms of creativity.

The co-construction of new ideas, topics, and contexts can lead to significant and distinctively different pedagogic practices.

This kind of improvisatory practice does not always appear in teacherartist partnerships. The peculiar paradox is that teachers are apparently being urged to collaborate more with artists when, in the present climate of accountability, there is less for them to collaborate on.

When differences in pedagogy between teachers and artists are not resolved, the teaching paradox is realized as a clash of pedagogic cultures Pringle, ; Galton, Similarly, in the work of Hall, Thomson, and Russell , the issues surrounding the clash between two cultures has also identified the need to develop shared principles and values so as to underpin the collaborative pedagogic practice that one hopes will emerge.

The first partnership I discuss is between Dorothy, a composer with twenty years of experience, and John, a teacher with twenty years of experience.

John is the Director of Performing Arts, a music teacher, conductor, and arranger. He has great respect for Dorothy because of the results she gets with his students.

I knew them both some considerable time before because he had been an enthusiast for some innovative curriculum development and she had been involved in making composition accessible and meaningful to students.

This is how Dorothy described the shared space of her pedagogic practice as the dialogic improvisation of teaching.

I normally start with activities which open up and explore possibilities and communicate an openness to ideas in the ways we model collaborative action and a passion for the exploration of our own creative learning and teaching.

Everything evolves organically. And, I like to spend quite a bit of time before starting a project observing the classroom practice of the teachers involved.

This influences how I work. I try to promote a kind of fluid reflective practice which is a bit like researching your own practice.

I encourage risk taking and play and expect students to take responsibility for what they do. That is crucial.

I get them to work in a participatory way where exchanging ideas and experiences is expected also of the teachers.

I do a lot of talking with the teacher during the sessions and engaging collaboratively. I also have a lot of extended conversations long before and immediate after sessions and I make a big deal of shared dialogue during sessions with the teachers.

I think learners gain a lot of 62 Burnard understanding through this collaboration but through these exchanges and with students working along teachers.

Other common elements in their practice included allowing students choice and ownership of their learning, time for reflection, creating a stimulating environment, and, most importantly, modeling creative action within a genuine partnership.

John, the teacher, probes the reasons for the high levels of collaboration, mutual support, respect, and shared engagement; the reasons for selecting the tasks the artists ask students and teachers to undertake; and the kinds of outcomes on which he and Dorothy agree on and judge as successful.

Unusually, he separates learning and the act of teaching as a transaction taking place not only between the artist and students within the classroom but between the artist and teacher.

John said: To me, working with artists is about several things. I see, in the course of lesson and across a series of lessons, how they encompass, get students to explore their own ideas before going on to decide on the tasks and activities to be undertaken and about the particular tasks which move to imaginative playful spontaneous stuff then move to create something in response, working with them in different ways to create safe spaces for risk taking.

And another important thing is with the students. What I am trying to do here is to be a person who responds to ideas, just like the students; to come up with ideas and to bring our own reflections to share.

The students reflect on their learning and themselves as learners. So do I, but as their teacher I bring my own practice to the surface and share it with more spontaneity with the artist.

Just like Dorothy, I start with warm-up and release activities which open up and explore possibilities and communicate an openness to ideas.

Artists often resist describing their practice as teaching. In contrast, they often describe their pedagogic practice in the language of the teaching paradox: a dialogic improvisation between the fixed plans, repertoires, and routines, yielding to high levels of real-time decision making.

It is not uncommon for both teachers and artists to go through periods of uncertainty and discomfort as they negotiate this tension between different conceptions of the use of time, space, and resources in relation to how classroom and school procedures normally operate.

These principles overlay my pedagogic practice in schools. There are tensions and clearly risks attached for those engaged in the fluid nature of art-making processes.

The consequence of reflection, putting in breathing spaces and still points, and reflecting critically on what, why, and how we learn and how we work in partnership with teachers and students in schools can be 64 Burnard really tricky.

The effect of encouraging students to pursue a line of thinking may cause them to question or challenge the values and practices of their own teachers and that of the school can be seen as subversive.

Sometimes you just have to invite students to find the space and take the time to sit and think about it and try and reduce the perceived risk by the offer to think and encourage thinking together about alternative ways rather than just pursue one way to go about it.

So, they become the provider of information, or the police person. They very loosely guided the students on a very different, quite unspecified, learning journey to me.

I watched from the sidelines rather than participated. I know why a few of the students get upset. It can be very destabilizing for some students.

Confidences can take a real knock when tasks are high on ambiguity and therefore perceived as very risky. I just had to help out some students by showing specifically how to do things so they could achieve the set criteria that we are all used to.

They had all the talent but none of the critical elements that, for me, defines teaching like being The Improvisatory Space of Teaching 65 in control and which, for me, should play out like a fully orchestrated score.

The teaching paradox that arises in the partnership between artists and teachers can be complex and can give rise to a clash of confidence, as power relationships are forged and in some cases control relinquished to whose opinions count.

Artists can hold strong views about going with the flow whereas teachers often see themselves cast in the role of didact or policeman.

Pringle and Galton make similar points that artists can adopt creative and experimental pedagogic modes because generally they are free from curriculum constraints, whereas teachers are not always at liberty to do so.

In the context of the qualitative differences between artist and teacher pedagogies, Bernstein offers a framework which differentiates between pedagogies in terms of competence and performance.

In any given teaching session, performance models might include, as a core act of teaching, improvisational forms that, in-the-moment, promote learner independence and autonomy or require the teacher to spontaneously scaffold learning so as to help learners move forward in their learning.

Teachers are being pushed by two opposed agendas: They are being asked to promote creativity while at the same time meeting accountability targets measured by success in standardized tests.

The evidence from several studies is that there are many understandable tensions arising out of this paradox Cochrane, What kinds of pedagogic practices and partnerships have the potential to create better professional teacher practices?

First, we have strong evidence that artists work adaptively with and alongside teachers and students Galton, They work together improvisationally, as ideas are exchanged and built on dialogically Sawyer, Second, we have strong evidence that for the teachers, working with artists involves teaching in a variety of ways.

The artists tend to move between competence and performance pedagogies, splitting the focus between the learner, what the learner achieves, the teacher, and the performance of teaching.

Teachers tend to favor the performance models of pedagogy, which place the emphasis on clearly defined objectives and outputs; but having seen the effects of encouraging students to pursue different lines of thinking, to question and challenge the values and practices of past lessons, and the consequences of professional reflection, most of them increasingly come to understand that creative learning is not about getting a right or wrong outcome, but is a dance that is both improvised and choreographed.

As a result of the partnerships, teachers change how they approach the teaching paradox: They become more improvisational. Being Improvisatory with the Other in Educational Partnerships What matters to teachers the most is how artists deploy their specialized knowledge in practice.

They view the artists as experts who are successful because of their superior knowledge of their subject matter honed through years of experience as performing artists.

Sawyer has applied these ideas to teaching as improvisation, particularly the capacity to adapt reflexively to learning environments.

Artists often prefer to think of their role as that of a creative facilitator who offers education projects out of schools in galleries, museums, the community such as village halls and churches, and other local phenomena.

Such spaces can offer the conditions necessary to support and nurture creativity in teaching and learning, and offer up new starting points, lines of inquiry, The Improvisatory Space of Teaching 67 and possibilities of specific places for engaging imaginative creative activity.

Artists and teachers develop unique pedagogic partnerships when they mesh understandings of how children encounter place and time differently in different contexts.

I look at things in a completely different way now. I think I now teach in a more creative way. I play.

I now experiment with a revitalized sense of myself as an artist teacher and happily share my own compositions with my students. I think of them as artists.

I understand much more about the importance of being flexible and engaging the imagination and how to generate motivation and explore ideas while still working towards an outcome.

I feel a lot more confident about ways to achieve a balance between freedom and control in creativity and to navigate between being a teacher and student and shared negotiation in collaboration within the hierarchy of the school.

This teacher worked together with the artist and they adaptively supported each other. Many teachers emphasized the tensions and felt threatened by changes in routine.

Yet they nonetheless spoke about the experience of being helped teach more creatively, using creative journeys as educational drivers, and developing creative skills in young people.

The capacity and willingness to take risks and work with the unfamiliar created some challenges to the orthodoxies and occupational mythologies played out in artist-teacher interactions, as one teacher observed: There was a definite sort of tension.

For example, I normally work with the desks arranged in rows. But actually I think it was a really good process to see how students could work in small groups arranged in different ways and spaces 68 Burnard to generate new ways of composing.

They not only used space in some exciting activities; they had the students working in small groups with a new self-determined concentration, purposefully experimenting, modeling, and trying out ideas as they composed in different ways.

It was a message creative space though. It felt like a combination between a science lab, an art room and a junk yard.

The students were absorbed in their composing and it was not surprising really. I have rarely seen such a purposeful, buzzing and reflective climate in a group.

The students were also consciously reflecting on their creative process, taking photographs and recordings of all their drafts as a record of when and in what way they felt they were being creative.

I came to a realization that they all had a gift. I realized how good they were and how much they were taking the students pieces seriously, and that they were at the top of their profession and yet remained so very, very sympathetic to all of the students, aware of what each student was risking and what made them tick.

The gift was of making every idea that the students came up with live. I still feel the tension of accountability exerted in lots of different ways but I just love the true reciprocity of my teaching horizon being a shared horizon and so is always affected by others.

That sort of connection must be good for students to see us tuning in and connecting. What these teachers are learning is how to be more improvisational in the classroom and more collaborative with students.

This involves a kind of mutual tuning in and openness to each other. Being able to talk about pedagogic practices, to feel that pull that one needs to be able to listen and tune in and to observe different practices, enables teachers and artists to experience a renewed sense of purpose and professionalism, a reduced sense of isolation, and a passion for the exploration of their teaching and learning.

The ways that artists mutually tune in to teachers and learners provides an important clue as to how teachers can better negotiate the teaching paradox.

In the same way that instruments are tuned on the basis of tension, The Improvisatory Space of Teaching 69 so the success of an educational partnership depends on the tension being maintained in balance.

On the one hand, as artist and teacher open themselves up to each other, they feel the pull of the other that demands respect. The point at which the partnership results in the most effective learning environment is when improvisatory acts of collaboration and improvisations in classroom activities occur.

In sum, ways of enabling improvisational forms of creativity in pedagogic partnerships include: 1. Providing time to reflect critically on emerging pedagogic practices.

Allowing for a high proportion of pupil talk, much of it occurring between pupils, teachers, and artists, and reflecting on the focus of classroom discourse.

Allowing time for extended planning sessions that reflect on the content to be taught being organized around a limited set of powerful ideas.

Modeling the ways in which the classroom ethos encourages each other along with the pupils to offer speculative answers to challenging questions without fearing failure.

Developing pedagogic practices that invite flexible thinking, risk taking, multivocality, professionally looking anew, and illustrating inherent freedoms that characterize improvisatory forms of creativity Educational partnerships are essentially improvisational in nature; they model the more improvised and less formulaic and fixed approaches to teaching.

Thus these experiences help teachers understand how to negotiate the teaching paradox in a different way, with a renewed focus on improvisational practice.

References Alexander, R. Still no pedagogy? Principle, pragmatism and compliance in primary education. Essays on pedagogy.

Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Zahlreiche Aussteller aus verschiedenen Bereichen beschäftigen sich mit dem Thema Hochzeit und informieren ausführlich über Produkte und Dienstleistungen.

Vor 50 Jahren wurden die beiden in der eingeweihten Tegernauer Lorenz-Kirche von Doch zum Glück wurde doch bald mehr daraus. Erich Wiegmann stammt aus Perfekt arrangierte Tischgedecke, Lieblingslieder und ein unvergessener Auftritt der glücklichen Braut in einem wunderschönen Kleid.

Auch Wiebke Exner steht dieser Sie arbeiteten bis zu ihrer Verrentung noch als Angestellte in anderen Betrieben. Georg Genghammer ist deshalb besser als "Oberauer Schorsch" bekannt.

Das Ehepaar hat zwei Söhne, Hans und Georg, Nach mehr als 60 Jahren sind sie immer noch zusammen: Marianne und Heinz Lau, die jetzt in Klosterlechfeld ihre diamantene Hochzeit feierten.

In Pfaffenhausen gab es heuer insgesamt sieben Paare, die vor genau 50 Jahren geheiratet haben und eines, das vor 60 Jahren vor den Traualtar schritt.

März verlegt wurde, dieses gewinnen, Verletzte Grasser dabei das Meldegesetz? Anja Aupperle träumt von einer schnellen Hasen- Hochzeit.

Lieselotte und Lothar Stark aus Erlbach haben Diamantene Hochzeit gefeiert - gestern waren sie seit 60 Jahren verheiratet.

Doch damit waren die Kinder und Enkel nicht einverstanden. Goldene Hochzeit feiert man nur einmal und wenn die Ehe über Schon die Bewahrung dieser Geschichte war ihm eine Herzensangelegenheit.

Das rote Buch zur goldenen Hochzeit ist es noch mehr. Seine Frau Lieselotte erinnert sich noch gut daran, dass der Wind ziemlich durch ihren Schleier fegte und ihn die Blumenkinder Ihre Blicke begegneten sich in der Schule.

Mehr dazu lesen Sie in der Das kommt ihm teuer zu stehen. Hermann und Elisabeth Eisele, zur diamantenen Hochzeit.

Schlat: - Martha Pohl, zum Es war der Samstag vor dem ersten Advent im Seit dem Ebenfalls einen Musikant-Notdienst biete ich Der Fürstentochter Lärka steht eine arrangierte Hochzeit bevor.

Falls Sie bisherig auf jener Ermittlung nach einem Musikant sind, dann sehen Sie sich doch mein Angebot mal genauer an, als ich biete Ihnen einen Frage von : hallo, wir suchen einen saal zum hochzeit feiern in Hannover?

Mit dem richtigen Partner, den man über alles liebt, die Hochzeit über den Wolken im Flugzeug zu feiern. Ihr Traum kann Wirklichkeit werden!

Hochzeit über den Wolken im Garching ra. Zur goldenen Hochzeit gratulierte Es war ein wunderschönes Hochzeit sfest in der Evangelische Gemeinschaft in Ihringen.

Hinweis: Offenes-Presseportal. Die Meldung gibt nicht die Von Flitterwochen nach der Hochzeit im Leuchtturm Westerhever Hochzeit sreportage in Schloss Hundisburg, Hochzeit sfotograf Alexa.

Trauung in der Heiraten im Chanderli in Weil am Rhein! Schon seit längerer Zeit steht der historische Postwagen der Kandertalbahn als rollendes Standesamt zur Hochzeit und Trauung zur Verfügung.

Für Nadine und Andreas wurde der Traum wahr. Die Hochzeit in Körchow. Unterirdische bei Teschow. Unterirdische in Dutzow.

Unterirdische fahren über. Unterirdische entführen eine Frau. Die Speisekammer bei Brunshaupten. Mönken in Doberan.

Ich möchte Euch hier einmal. Es wird nichts mehr so sein, wie es früher mal war. Es gibt jedoch Vielen Dank an alle, die dabei waren. Sicher ein Erlebnis, welches so schnell nicht wieder kommt.

Das Schloss Weikersheim gehört zweifellos dazu. Diese Hochzeit war auch gleichzeitig mein erster Besuch in Weikersheim.

Da war ich so schön mit Manser in Wrohe am Westensee.

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